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Personal Health Data Asset innovation in the Digital Economy Era

Lu Yimin, President, China General Technology (Group) Holding

This article delves into the significance of personal health data within the digital economy, emphasizing its pivotal role in revolutionizing health management and medical services. It covers the sources and diversity of personal health data, discusses the transformation of health services due to the digital economy, explores the value of a personal health data asset management platform, and highlights associated risks, including privacy and security concerns. In summary, personal health data plays a crucial role in reshaping healthcare, but it also necessitates addressing privacy and security challenges.

The two strategies of "Healthy China" and "Digital China" have formed an important intersection in China's development, and together they have built a new era with digital economy characteristics. The 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China provided further guidance for this intersection in the new development concept. From the "Healthy China 2030" planning outline to the implementation of the "Healthy China Action", the Chinese government has continuously strengthened the construction of the health service system, focusing on intervening in factors affecting health, maintaining health throughout the life cycle, and preventing and controlling major diseases, etc., and promoted the rapid development health service industry.
 
The "Healthy China" strategy and the "Digital China" strategy blend with each other in the new era of digital economy. "Healthy China" emphasizes health management as the core impetus and promotes a much wider healthcare management scope, while "Digital China" emphasizes the goal of comprehensive digitalization and applies digital technology to various fields. The intersection of these two strategies is that digital technology offers new ways to achieve health goals. Digitalization has promoted innovation in health services, such as Internet medical care and health data analysis, to provide people with more efficient and high-quality health services. At the same time, the digital transformation in the healthcare field has also injected vitality into the digital economy, accelerated the rise of the digital industry, and built a digital health industry ecosystem.
 
In the new era of digital economy, the characteristics of these two strategies are revealed. The "Digital China" strategy uses informatization, intelligence, networking and other means to promote industrial upgrading and innovative development, with the digital economy becoming a key driving force. In the healthcare field, digital transformation has brought new business model, such as telemedicine and health data management, injecting new impetus into the sustainable growth of the health industry. The "Healthy China" strategy emphasizes the construction of a full life cycle health service system. Digital means make health management more accurate and convenient, and meet diverse health needs. At the same time, the application of digital technology in health data management, disease prevention and other aspects also provides important support for achieving national health goals.

1. The Upcoming Changes in the Healthcare market

1.1 Consumer demand for health management shows obvious diversification characteristics

The consumption concept has been upgraded to "health management-centric", and different groups of people require different health services. With the improvement of social and economic levels and people's increasing emphasis on healthcare, consumer demand for health management has shown a diversified trend. Different groups of people have different health needs. For example, the elderly pay more attention to maintaining quality life standards, patients with chronic diseases require professional rehabilitation services, and young people may pay more attention to fitness and body shape management. At the same time, people's demand for health management has gradually shifted from simple treatment to prevention and early intervention, focusing on health management throughout the life cycle. In order to meet the needs of different groups of people, health management services should provide diversified products and services, including health consultation, customized health plans, health testing and evaluation, etc.

Health services have different overall demands for different people. "Thousands of people with thousands of faces" means providing targeted health management services based on each person's individual needs and characteristics. Everyone’s health status, lifestyle habits, genetics, etc. are different, so the same health management plan does not apply to everyone. Through personalized customization, we can better meet everyone's needs and provide more effective health management services that are more in line with individual characteristics. This requires health management institutions or service providers to master a large amount of personal health data and use advanced technologies and algorithms to analyze and mine this data to generate personalized health management plans.

Big health services require big data to drive precise services. The application of big data technology makes health management more accurate and intelligent. Big data can collect and organize huge amounts of health information from multiple dimensions, including disease data, health habits, environmental factors, genetic data, behavioral data, etc., to better understand the health status and development trends of the population. Through big data analysis, potential health risks and problems can be discovered, and early warning and intervention can be carried out to reduce the occurrence and exacerbation of diseases. At the same time, big data can also support health management decisions and program formulation, optimize the allocation of medical resources and the provision of health services.

1.2 The current rights and interests of Personal Healthcare Data are ambiguous and permissions are undetermined, and urgent changes are needed.

The rights and interests of personal health data in China are still subject to some unclear issues and yet-to-determine factors over permissions. Most of the existing laws are from the perspective of protection and supervision, regulating the use of data through the Cybersecurity Law, Data Security Law, Personal Information Protection Law, etc. However, there is no law that regulates the ownership of data in various scenarios. Who owns it is clearly defined, and current laws rarely involve other rights and interests carried by the data itself. In the judicial process, the "Anti-Unfair Competition Law" and other laws are currently mainly used as an expedient to protect data rights and interests, recognizing that data has competitive interests. However, there is no consensus on the specific rules for demarcating rights, and there is great uncertainty. Operators are still prone to frequent disputes caused by unclear ownership.
First, data ownership is undetermined: In China, personal health data involves multiple departments and institutions, such as medical institutions, health insurance companies, scientific research institutions, government departments, etc. Due to the lack of clear legal and policy provisions, it is difficult to establish clear ownership of personal health data, which leads to problems in data being obtained, used and shared by multiple parties. Current thinking is to focus on the rights of use and control rather than ownership.

Second, there is a lack of clear data protection laws: Although China implemented the Personal Information Protection Law in 2020, it mainly focuses on the protection of personal information and does not have detailed regulations on the protection of personal health data. This puts the rights and interests of personal health data at greater risk and may be abused or improperly used.

Third, data sharing between medical institutions and Internet companies: As Internet companies enter the medical field, data sharing becomes a problem. Data sharing between medical institutions and Internet companies may involve personal health data, but during the sharing process, individuals' rights to use and control the data are not clear, which can easily lead to risks of data privacy leakage and abuse.

Fourth, ambiguity over permissions for scientific research and commercial use: Personal health data has important value in both scientific research and commercial use. However, in both areas, permissions for data use and sharing are not clearly defined, which can lead to abuse, unfair competition, and unauthorized use.

Fifth, lack of data standards and norms: In the process of collecting, storing and using personal health data, the lack of consistent standards and norms makes it difficult to share data between different institutions and increases the risk of data misuse.

2. The changes in business formats brought about by the Digital Economy have also brought new thinking about Personal Health Data.

2.1 Diversified health needs will lead to comprehensive, life-cycle health and medical services

The transformation of health and medical services from the current fragmented and independent form to a comprehensive, full life cycle, and all-scenario model is driven by multiple factors. At the same time, this transformation is also an inevitable and inevitable trend.

This transformation is first driven by technology and supported by data. With the rapid development of information technology and digitization, the data acquisition, transmission and analysis capabilities in the medical field have greatly improved. Through smart devices, sensors and other tools, people can collect a large amount of personal health data in different scenarios and at various times, thereby building a more comprehensive and accurate health profile.
These data provide scientific basis to enable medical services to better meet individual needs and realize the transformation from passive treatment to active prevention.

Secondly, the all-round, full life cycle, and all-scenario medical service model is more in line with personalized health needs. Everyone's health needs vary with age, lifestyle and genetic factors. The traditional medical model cannot fully grasp the medical care required at each stage of an individual's life cycle. However, from a full life cycle perspective, medical services can manage and intervene in health problems in a more refined manner, achieving continuity and collaboration in health management.

In addition, the all-scenario model helps improve the efficiency of medical services and avoid repeated examinations and waste of resources. The interconnection of medical data enables information sharing between different medical scenarios, and doctors and professionals can work better together to provide individuals with more accurate and timely medical advice. At the same time, for emerging fields such as telemedicine and health consultation, the all-scenario connection model provides the possibility of cross-regional and cross-time medical services.

2.2 In the future, Personal Health Data will inevitably move towards the form of convergence, all-round multi-scenario coverage, and the entire life cycle.

In the future, it is an inevitable development trend that personal health data will be integrated, with all-round multi-scenario coverage and the entire life cycle. There is inevitability and important value behind it. This trend aims to achieve more refined health management and promote the development of the digital economy, in which the elementalization of data assets will play a key role.

The inevitability lies in the fact that the rapid development of science and technology in modern society has made data acquisition, transmission and storage more convenient than ever. It has become normal for people to record various data such as health indicators and living habits through smart devices. Gathering these scattered data can build a more comprehensive and accurate personal health portrait, providing data support for medical treatment, disease prevention, health management, etc. At the same time, as medical services transform from passive treatment to active prevention and personalized management, comprehensive and multi-scenario health data coverage will better meet the diversity of individual health needs.

This trend also brings significant value. First, the aggregation and elementalization of personal health data can promote the development of precision medicine. By analyzing data such as individual genes, physiological indicators, and living habits, medical and health services can more accurately predict disease risks and formulate personalized prevention and treatment plans, thereby improving medical effects. Secondly, the elementalization of data assets makes personal health data a valuable digital asset. Individuals can authorize the use of their own data, obtain benefits, and at the same time better protect personal privacy. In addition, comprehensive analysis of data helps advance scientific research and promotes breakthroughs in medical research and technological innovation.

2.3 Forming a Digital Twin Healthcare Ecosystem

Under the new business format, big health service companies will realize the big health ecosystem of digital twins, forming a close twin relationship between business and digital dimensions, achieving comprehensive health service coverage and intelligent operation management. Specifically reflected in the following aspects:

Digital twin relationship in the business dimension: The big health ecosystem will gather all personal big health data through the digital platform to form a full life cycle and multi-dimensional personal health data assets. This will allow personal health information to be comprehensively and accurately assessed and customized services. At the same time, the ecology will expand its product system to provide full-scenario product services such as healthy living, diet, sports, health care, finance, tourism, real estate, insurance, and cultural creativity to meet the health needs of different groups. Business development will be closely integrated with digital platforms to realize the mutual empowerment of data and services and improve the quality and efficiency of health services.

Digital twin relationship in the digital dimension: The digital platform will make full use of technologies such as intelligence and blockchain to ensure the security and privacy of personal health data. Through data aggregation and analysis, digital twin technology will provide comprehensive business insights and decision-making support for the ecosystem, and promote the construction of a group operation system. The digital platform will achieve multi-institutional coverage, realize cross-sector collaboration, and improve the collaborative capabilities of various business sectors within the ecosystem. At the same time, the digital platform will establish unified ecological service capabilities, covering individuals, groups, institutions and regions, create a unified cloud network security system, and promote the integration and sharing of ecological capability resources.

3. The value and connotation of Personal Health Data Asset Management Platform

In this new health ecosystem, the comprehensive collection of personal health data assets will be the engine and value accumulation of the entire ecosystem. By giving personal health data assets control and usage rights, the data asset resource layer returns data initiative to individuals, promoting a virtuous cycle of user participation, data security and health innovation. This value not only meets the rights and needs of individuals, but also provides the group with a broader space for business expansion and innovative development, and promotes the realization of the comprehensive value of the digital architecture. At the same time, the data asset resource layer is also interconnected with other sectors, Internet application systems and ecological resource integration capabilities to form a collaborative and complete digital ecosystem.

3.1 The value of Personal Health Data

In the digital era, the application of health data is increasingly becoming the key to achieving personalized health management and high-quality medical services. For different types of applications, such as value discovery, medical empowerment, health risk control and personal data services, the integration of digital capabilities has injected new vitality into the health field. Through value discovery, personalized health care and intelligent customer service become possible, bringing medical services closer to user needs. In terms of medical empowerment, digital support for early intervention and cost control can effectively improve medical quality and reduce costs. The health risk control application achieves early identification and intervention of disease risks through full life cycle portrait warning. Personal data services provide users with data privacy protection and authorization management, enabling safe sharing and migration of data.

However, this is only an initial attempt at health data applications. With the continuous advancement of science and technology and the promotion of innovation, more diversified applications will appear in the future. From more sophisticated life and health data collection to the popularization of smart medical equipment, from the application of genomics to in-depth analysis of medical images, digital capabilities will continue to expand the boundaries of the health field. At the same time, cross-field data integration and analysis will lead to more accurate medical predictions and treatment plans to protect everyone's health. These innovations will further promote the vigorous development of the health industry and bring more benefits to individuals and society as a whole. Therefore, the digital capabilities of health data applications have not only shown great value in the early stages, but will also continue to evolve in the future, bringing revolutionary changes to our health and medical experience.

The first category of applications, value discovery, plays a key role in the application of health data. Through customer value discovery and evaluation, the system can gain an in-depth understanding of the user's personal health situation, thereby accurately customizing personalized health management plans. Based on the user's health data, the system can identify the user's health needs and risks, and provide users with targeted product recommendations and health advice. As an interactive platform, intelligent customer service can answer users' health questions in real time, provide professional medical advice, and help users better understand their own health conditions. This kind of application not only enhances users' awareness of personal health, but also provides customized health plans, thereby increasing users' enthusiasm and participation in health management. Through digital capabilities, the system can quickly analyze large amounts of health data, mine valuable information, provide users with accurate health advice and services, and achieve the goal of personalized health care.

The second type of applications, clinical empowerment, is of great significance in health data applications. By in-depth analysis of users' health data, the system can identify potential health needs and risks, thereby achieving the goals of early intervention and long-term cost control. The system can track changes in users' health data, detect signs of health problems early, and take appropriate treatment measures before the disease worsens. In addition, digital capabilities can help the system detect ineffective treatments, avoid unnecessary medical behaviors, and reduce medical costs. By connecting with medical databases, the system can obtain rich medical information, provide users with scientific and reasonable medical advice, and improve medical efficiency and treatment effects. Digital analysis and prediction capabilities enable the system to more accurately predict patients' disease development trends, achieve precision and personalization of health management, and provide users with better medical empowerment services.

The third category of applications, health risk control, plays an important role in early warning and risk control in health data applications. By comprehensively analyzing an individual's life-cycle health data, the system can identify people with potential long-term symptoms or latent symptoms, detect health risks in advance, and take appropriate intervention measures. Digital capabilities enable the system to build a personal health portrait and comprehensively consider various factors, including genes, living habits, medical history, etc., to more accurately predict individual health risks. The system can discover potential correlations and patterns through data mining and model analysis, and provide timely warning information to medical institutions and individuals so that appropriate intervention measures can be taken to reduce health risks and medical burdens. Digital capabilities also enable the system to achieve real-time monitoring and tracking, detect health abnormalities early, and provide users with more comprehensive and accurate health risk control services, thereby improving the user's overall health level.

The fourth category of applications, personal data services, has important privacy protection and data controllability functions in health data applications. This application focuses on the authorized management and use history tracing of personal health data. It not only enables individuals to fully control their own health data and decide how to share and utilize this data with all parties, but also provides the inheritability of personal data assets through digital capabilities. It gives a new dimension and lays a solid foundation for building a credible and efficient digital health ecosystem. As a valuable asset, personal data can be better managed, inherited, shared and applied, creating multiple values for individuals and the entire health ecosystem.

In this type of application, data privacy protection and authorization management are still the core. Digital technology provides more secure and intelligent storage, transmission and access methods for personal data to meet users' needs for data security. Users can share data with medical institutions, insurance companies, research institutions, etc. according to their personal wishes to achieve safe sharing and effective application of data. Digital capabilities give the system a high degree of security and credibility, ensuring the security of personal health data during transmission, storage and processing through encryption technology and access control. The system can record authorization records of personal health data, including which institutions or individuals were granted access to the data, and when and how the data was used. Users can view and manage these authorizations at any time, ensuring personal privacy while also achieving reasonable sharing of data. Digital capabilities also enable the system to transfer data across agencies. When users need to share health data between different service agencies, the integrity and consistency of the data can be ensured through secure data transmission and sharing mechanisms.

At the same time, digital capabilities also give personal data assets the property of inheritability. By establishing a clear data inheritance mechanism, individuals can choose to pass on their health data assets to relatives or trustees, thus ensuring the sustainable use of data assets. This digital capability not only helps to continue to provide health management support to the individual's family after his death, but also provides longer-term and continuous health services to the individual himself.

In general, the digital capabilities of the fourth category of applications not only strengthen the individual's control over data and realize the safe, efficient and reasonable use of data, but also focus on the inheritability of data assets, creating benefits for individuals and the entire society. Greater value the continuous development and innovation of this digital capability will provide more possibilities for the reasonable use and inheritance of personal data, further promoting the intelligent and humanized development of health management.

3.2 The connotation of Personal Health Data Assets

In the construction of the personal health data system, the construction of the data asset platform emphasizes partition construction and isolation of risks, and realizes the safe and efficient use of big health data through three clear steps. First, the diversified data collection model ensures the coverage of various health data sources, from clinical to scientific research, from individuals to governments, ensuring data diversity and integrity. At the same time, data areas are strictly divided by region to prevent the risk of data leakage. Secondly, the data processing stage covers the establishment of unique identification, data cleaning, annotation, valuation, confirmation of rights and other processes to complete the data processing and set up security barriers at every step to ensure data accuracy and compliance. Finally, in the application output stage, diversified health services and applications are provided on demand. Through clear permission control and isolation mechanisms, the safe flow of data is ensured and the potential risk of cross-border spread of data is reduced. This digital architecture based on partition construction and risk isolation not only enhances the value of data in the general health field, but also provides security guarantees for personalized health management and services, providing a solid foundation for the sustainable development of the health ecosystem.

4. Risks of building a personal health data asset platform

Building a personal health data asset platform is an important step in the context of realizing all-round, full life cycle, and all-scenario medical services. However, it is also accompanied by a series of risks and challenges. Among them, risks in privacy protection, data security, and ethical considerations are particularly prominent.

First of all, privacy protection issues are one of the main risks faced in building a personal health data asset platform. Personal health data involves extremely sensitive private information, such as disease conditions, genetic information, etc. In the process of data sharing and exchange, how to protect personal privacy from being abused or leaked is a very challenging issue. Without an effective privacy protection mechanism, the platform may cause users to worry about data security, and even cause users to be reluctant to share data.

Secondly, data security risks cannot be ignored. Personal health data faces the risk of hacking, data leakage or misuse during the process of transmission, storage and processing. Once data is illegally obtained, personal privacy and rights may be seriously violated. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a solid data security system and strengthen encryption and protection measures to deal with potential security risks.

In addition, moral and ethical considerations are an important risk. In the process of building a personal health data asset platform, how to balance the relationship between the value of data and personal autonomy is a complex issue. The collection, sharing and use of data must follow ethical principles to ensure that the rights and dignity of individuals are not violated. Otherwise, it may cause moral disputes and social dissatisfaction, affecting the sustainable development of the entire platform.

5. Conclusion

In the digital age, the intersection of "Healthy China" and "Digital China" strategies presents an exciting prospect. "Healthy China" emphasizes comprehensive health services, from the policy level to regional implementation, and continuously strengthens the status of the health industry. "Digital China" popularizes digitalization in various fields, proposes to build a comprehensive digital society, and provides strong support for the development of the health industry. The intersection of the two strategies highlights the importance of factoring data assets in the health field.

In the era of digital economy, the value of personal health data has become increasingly prominent, becoming a key element in building comprehensive, full life cycle, and all-scenario medical services. Through diversified data collection and comprehensive data applications, personal health data is expected to achieve breakthroughs in precision medicine, personalized health management, and scientific research. However, in the process of building a personal health data asset platform, it also faces many risks and challenges such as privacy protection, data security and ethical considerations.

The diversity and comprehensiveness of personal health data provide a more accurate scientific basis for medical services, prompting the medical model to shift from passive treatment to active prevention and personalized management. The development of the digital economy has significantly improved data acquisition, transmission and analysis capabilities, supporting a comprehensive, full life cycle, and full scenario medical service model. This trend emphasizes the integration of personal health data, all-round multi-scenario coverage, and the entire life cycle, creating inevitability and value for achieving refined health management and promoting the development of the digital economy.

The application potential of personal health data covers value discovery, medical empowerment, health risk control and personal data services. These applications not only enhance users' awareness of personal health, but also improve the quality of medical care, reduce costs, and will usher in more diversified applications with continuous technological advancement. However, building a personal health data asset platform also faces risks in privacy protection, data security and ethical considerations. The protection of personal privacy is a key issue, and the security and compliance of personal health data need to be guaranteed. In addition, the reasonable use of data also needs to follow ethical principles to ensure a balance between the value of the data and individual rights and interests.

To sum up, personal health data will lead the innovation and innovation of medical services in the context of the digital economy, and have a profound impact on health management and the medical industry. However, when building a personal health data asset platform, it is necessary to fully understand the risks and challenges and take effective measures to ensure privacy protection, data security and ethical compliance in order to realize the maximum value and social benefits of personal health data. This combination enables digital medicine, driven by data, to better meet the diverse health needs of individuals and promote medical services into a new era that is more personalized and intelligent.

--Issue 03--

Author Bio

Lu Yimin

Lu Yimin, is the President of China General Technology (Group) Holding. Established in 1998, China General Technology (Group) Holding Co Ltd, commonly known as Genertec, is a centrally administered State-owned enterprise, which is directed by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC). It was approved by the government as a pilot enterprise of State-owned capital investment in December 2018.

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